The Ivan the Great Bell Tower lies at the heart of the Kremlin, both figuratively and compositionally. Built in the 16th century by Italian architect Bon Fryazin, the tower serves as the principal bell tower for the Kremlin’s churches and cathedrals, including Uspenskiy, Blagoveshchensky and the Cathedral of the Archangel. Rising to a height of 81 metres, it’s possible to climb the 329 staircases to reach the viewing platform at the top of the tower, where far-reaching views across Red Square are revealed. Remarkably, the tower features some 24 bells, all of which were installed in the 17th century. From 1918 to 1992, during the Soviet era, the bells were silent, but now they chime on many of Russia’s religious holidays.